Ophthalmologists are physicians who specialize in treating and diagnosing ailments of the eye.
Ophthalmologists complete a bachelor’s program, a 4-year Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) program and a 3-year ophthalmology residency in a hospital. Ph.D. in Ophthalmology programs are frequently offered as part of dual M.D./Ph.D. programs; they’re also designed for prospective university teachers or scientific researchers who already hold a professional medical degree. Ph.D. programs are primarily research-based and culminate in a dissertation, while M.D. programs with residencies emphasize hands-on clinical practice with patients.